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Malignant melanoma: Underlying epigenetic mechanisms

1 Department of Genetics, Institute for Research and Medical Consultations, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Hofuf, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Feroze Kaliyadan,
Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Hofuf 31982
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_791_19

PMID: 32769310

Although malignant melanoma is not the most common type of skin cancer, it is the most aggressive and fatal type as it can spread out and metastasize progressively. Early diagnosis and interventions lead to improved patient survival. The incidence rate of melanoma is dramatically increasing, with a few newer therapeutic options available. Therefore, establishing a reliable genetic or epigenetic-based diagnostic and prognostic tool is really important. In this review, we highlight the underlying epigenetic mechanisms involved in melanoma. Furthermore, the epigenetic-based therapeutic options will be also discussed.One of the key areas of discussion will be microRNA which is a small, single-stranded RNA moleculethat serves as a regulatory element and found to regulate nearly a third of human genes. MicroRNAsplay a role in a wide range of diseases including cancer. In malignant cells, it regulates cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.

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