Indexed with PubMed and Science Citation Index (E) 
Users online: 802 
     Home | Feedback | Login 
About Current Issue Archive Ahead of print Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe What's New Contact  
  Navigate here 
   Next article
   Previous article 
   Table of Contents
 Resource links
   Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
   [PDF Not available] *
   Citation Manager
   Access Statistics
   Reader Comments
   Email Alert *
   Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
   Materials and me...

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded0    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


Year : 1992  |  Volume : 58  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 93-94

Annual rhythmic variations in sperm counts

Correspondence Address:
K Rishi Bhargava

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions


Four infertile patients were examined in this study and followed up for 5 years from October, 1980 to February, 1986. All the semen samples were examined at monthly interval and were analysed for circannual rhythm. A trend was noted for high sperm count (but subnormal) in December and nil counts during June to October. These patients did not improve in sperm counts even with best treatment provided and showed improvement in counts even without any treatment in winter months, showing a strong circannual rhythm. Hence, all such cases of infertility should be examined at least twice a year for circannual rhythm and to explore the possibility of treatment in such cases.

Keywords: Annual rhythm, Sperm count, Infertility, periodicity

How to cite this article:
Bhargava K R, Mathur K D. Annual rhythmic variations in sperm counts. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1992;58:93-4

How to cite this URL:
Bhargava K R, Mathur K D. Annual rhythmic variations in sperm counts. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol [serial online] 1992 [cited 2020 Oct 25];58:93-4. Available from:

  Introduction Top

Large number of patients attend Department of Skin and STD with problem of infertility, either these are cases of azoospermia or oligospermia. Inspite of the best available treatment there is no improvement in sperm count in these cases and they show periodical variations in sperm count even without treatment.

Different studies in the past showed periodical variations for many aspects of human reproductive behaviour and physiology. Spontaneous initiation of labour as well as non-induced birth and the fluctuations of sex steroids such as oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone show periodicities of 24 hours. [1] In women, reproductive rhythms of 23-30 days is well known. [2] Annual rhythms also occur in human reproductive events and functions, for example, occurrence of births and the level of FSH, LH and 17-Ketosteroids. [3],[4] Tjoa et al [5] sub showed strong circannual pattern in sperm counts with highest counts between February and March and the lowest counts during September. They reported circannual variation in human beings as has been reported in birds and .domestic animals by various workers.

The aim of this study was to know the strong rhythmic pattern, which may be the guiding factor in the treatment of azoospermia and oligospermia.

  Materials and methods Top

This study was carried out for 5 years in 4 sterile patients from October, 1980 to February, 1986 in the Department of Skin, STD and Leprosy, SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur. All were married males with duration of marriage between 6 to 10 years and were of working class. They were clinically examined for leprosy, STDs and endocrinopathies and were found to be without any disease or any drug therapy. Their semen analysis were done fairly regularly every month and semen samples were collected by masturbation into clean glass container just prior to the examination i.e., within half an hour. They were all advised to have at least a week's abstinance before the screening test. Care was taken to analyse the sample in same laboratory and by the same pathologist every time but names of the patients were not disclosed to the laboratory. This was done to minimize the variations and to avoid errors. Semen samples were analysed for ejaculated volume, pH, sperm counts (normal and abnormal), motility and for the presence of other cells e.g., pus ;cells, epithelial cells and RBCs.

  Results Top

No significant difference was found in any finding other than total sperm count. Total sperm count varied from nil in some months of year to 41 million/ml in other months. Peak value of sperm count was noted from December to April, whereas, lowest counts were noted from June to October.

  Comments Top

In this study of 4 patients for 5 years, we observed peak number of sperm count from December to April and lowest count between June to October. Smith et al (1982) reported strong circannual pattern with the highest sperm count between February to March and lowest count during summer i.e. June to October, while Smith et al reported nil counts during September, which is probably the corresponding summer month in that part of the globe. Similarly, peak counts in our patients during December correspond with their peak counts in February and March. This pattern of spermatogenesis related to weather conditions suggest a strong circannual pattern and this may be responsible for the seasonal incidence of increased birth rate during certain months of the year. This rhythmical pattern is also an eye opener for providing treatment for large number of azoospermic and oligospermic patients because most of these patients do not show any improvement in sperm count and morphology even with best treatment provided and sometimes show improvement in counts even without treatment in favourable weather. Hence, all the cases of infertility should be examined at least twice a year for circannual rhythm to assess the possibility of treatment in these cases.

  References Top

1.Smolensky M N. Chronobiologic factors related to the epidemiology of human reproduction. In : Proceedings of the Xth World Congress of Fertility and Infertility, Madrid, Spain, July 5 to 11, 1980.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Reinberg A, Smolensky M H. Circatrigintar secondary rhythms related to hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle: general considerations. In: Biorhythms and Human Reproduction (Ferin M, Halberg F, Richart R M, Vande Wiele R L, eds), New York : John Wiley and Sons, 1974; 241.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Reinberg A, Lagoguey M. Annual endocrine rhythms in healthy young adult men: their implication in human biology and medicine. In Environmental Endocrinology (Assenmacher I, Farner DS, eds), Berlin Springer-Verlag, 1978; 113.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Reinberg A, Lagoguey M. Circadian and circannual rhythms in sexual activity and plasma hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone) of five human males. Arch Sex Behav 1978; 7 : 13.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  
5.Tjoa W S, Smolensky M H, et al. Circannual rhythm in human sperm counts revealed by serially independent sampling. Fertility and Sterlity 1982; 38: 454.  Back to cited text no. 5    


Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article


Online since 15th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow