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Figure 6: Summary of the various new drugs and their mechanism of action. 1–7 represent the mechanisms of development of melasma: 1 – hyperactive melanocytes and melanogenesis; 2 – melanosomal transfer to keratinocytes; 3 – inflammation and reactive oxygen species; 4 – skin barrier; 5 – dermal vasculature; 6 – mast cells and histamine; 7 – estrogen receptors. ER: estrogen receptors, NCAP: N-acetyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol, TXA: tranexamic acid

Figure 6: Summary of the various new drugs and their mechanism of action. 1–7 represent the mechanisms of development of melasma: 1 – hyperactive melanocytes and melanogenesis; 2 – melanosomal transfer to keratinocytes; 3 – inflammation and reactive oxygen species; 4 – skin barrier; 5 – dermal vasculature; 6 – mast cells and histamine; 7 – estrogen receptors. ER: estrogen receptors, NCAP: N-acetyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol, TXA: tranexamic acid