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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| July  | Volume 79 | Issue 7  
    Online since July 24, 2013

 
 
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SUPPLEMENT-PSORIASIS
Infliximab: Efficacy in psoriasis
Shehnaz Arsiwala
July 2013, 79(7):25-34
DOI:10.4103/0378-6323.115525  
Moderate to severe psoriasis often needs to be addressed with standard disease modifying therapies such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, acitretin or ultraviolet radiation, which have their potential benefits and limitations. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is elevated in psoriatic plaques compared to non lesional skin as well as in the plasma of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Infliximab, a TNF-α blocker, has been recommended for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in adults who have failed to respond to these therapies or who cannot tolerate them. Its specific action on the bound and membrane forms of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α has made it the molecule of choice for obtaining quicker and longer remission in recalcitrant cases. However, the widespread use of infliximab in the Indian subcontinent is limited by its cost. This article reviews the international guidelines for use of infliximab, its dosage patterns, and efficacy in chronic plaque psoriasis, nail psoriasis, erythrodermic psoriasis, and pustular psoriasis as well as Indian experience.
  2 5,340 452
Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists: Side effects and their management
Sunil Dogra, Geeti Khullar
July 2013, 79(7):35-46
DOI:10.4103/0378-6323.115526  
As elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are associated with disease severity in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, TNF-α antagonists are being used to treat moderate to severe disease in patients who have contraindications, fail to respond or develop side effects to conventional systemic therapies. It is of utmost importance to be well versed with the possible adverse effects and contraindications of TNF-α antagonists so that they can be used effectively and safely. Many of their adverse effects have been well studied in patients of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and may not be completely applicable in psoriasis. This is because patients with RA and IBD are on multiple immunosuppressants while those with psoriasis are mostly receiving single systemic therapy and often have comorbidities that distinguish them from those with RA or IBD. Also, some of the side effects are still controversial and debated. Long-term prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to better understand the associated risk in patients of psoriasis. Baseline screening and periodic monitoring during treatment can reduce and help in early identification and appropriate management of the adverse outcomes. This article reviews the side effects known to be associated with TNF-α antagonists, their pathomechanisms and management guidelines. Some of the common side effects include infusion and injection site reactions, infections particularly reactivation of tuberculosis, autoantibody formation and drug induced lupus erythematosus, liver function abnormalities, hematological, and solid organ malignancies.
  1 8,684 456
Comorbidities in psoriasis
Sanjeev J Aurangabadkar
July 2013, 79(7):10-17
DOI:10.4103/0378-6323.115506  
Moderate to severe psoriasis is associated with concomitant diseases that may have a significant impact on patients. It is necessary for the treating physician to recognize these concomitant diseases, known as comorbidities, early as they influence the management options. Important comorbidities are psoriatic arthritis, metabolic syndrome, Crohn's disease, depression, and cancer. Patients with severe psoriasis may be at an increased risk for myocardial infarction and this subgroup of patients tends to have a reduced life expectancy. The presence of co-morbid diseases is associated with an increase in concomitant medication, some of which may worsen psoriasis; conversely, systemic treatment of psoriasis with certain drugs may impact the co-morbid conditions. As dermatologists are the primary health-care providers for psoriasis, adequate knowledge of comorbidities helps in choosing the appropriate therapy as well as timely intervention.
  1 14,438 1,297
Diagnosis and management of psoriatic arthritis
Canchi Balakrishnan, Nina Madnani
July 2013, 79(7):18-24
DOI:10.4103/0378-6323.115507  
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a multi-faceted disease marked by varying combinations of peripheral arthritis, dactylitis, spondylitis, and enthesitis. Rarely, recurrent uveitis occurs. Skin involvement may or may not exist. However, patients with nail psoriasis have a higher probability of developing PsA. Untreated patients have significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis and aggressive treatment of the disease can lead to lower morbidity. Drug therapy of PsA includes symptomatic therapy and therapy with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Biologics are the only agents that address all the pathological changes, of this chronic condition.
  - 6,219 731
Newer targeted therapies in psoriasis
Sujay Khandpur, Neetu Bhari
July 2013, 79(7):47-52
DOI:10.4103/0378-6323.115532  
Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disease that can have a significant impact on the quality of life of those who are afflicted due to chronicity of the disease and frequent remissions and relapses. Many available systemic therapies, however, are unsuitable for chronic administration due to the risk of cumulative toxicity. Recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of psoriasis have led to the development of new, genetically engineered, targeted therapies for this disease. These include approaches targeting antigen presentation and co-stimulation, T-cell activation and leukocyte adhesion, action on pro-inflammatory mediators, and modulating the cytokine balance. Although only preliminary data are available so far and there is limited data supporting their use, these trials contribute to a further understanding of the disease and will eventually lead to new therapeutic options for psoriasis.
  - 8,620 1,183
Pathophysiology of psoriasis
Rahul Mahajan, Sanjeev Handa
July 2013, 79(7):1-9
DOI:10.4103/0378-6323.115505  
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory papulosquamous disease characterized by multiple remissions and relapses. For long, it was believed to be primarily a disorder of keratinization. However, the successful use of traditional immunosupressants and newer immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of psoriasis led to the belief that psoriasis is primarily a disease of Th1 cell immune dysregulation. Recent developments have brought up several new findings such as the role of Th17 cells and evidence of skin barrier dsysfunction in psoriasis, akin to atopic dermatitis. The present review aims to focus on these new developments and explain the pathogenesis of psoriasis on the basis of currently available information.
  - 25,851 2,300
Online since 15th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow