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A randomized, open-label, comparative study of oral tranexamic acid and tranexamic acid microinjections in patients with melasma

1 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Rachita R Misri,
2nd Floor OPD Building, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi - 110 007
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_801_16

PMID: 30333359

Background: Melasma poses a great challenge as its treatment modalities are unsatisfactory. Treatment using tranexamic acid is a novel concept. Aim: This study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy and safety of oral tranexamic acid and tranexamic acid microinjections in patients with melasma. Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, open-label study with a sample size of 64, 32 in each treatment arm. Thirty-two patients were administered localized microinjections (4 mg/ml) of tranexamic acid monthly in 1 arm, while in the other arm, 32 were given oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice a day. Patients were followed up for 3 consecutive months. Clinical photographs were taken at each visit, and a modified melasma area and severity index scoring was performed at the beginning and end of treatment. Results: Improvement in melasma area and severity index score in the oral group was 57.5% as compared to 43.5% in the intralesional group. All 32 patients in the oral group (100%) showed >50% improvement, out of which 8 showed >75% improvement. In the intralesional group, 17 (53%) patients had >50% improvement, of which 3 had >75% improvement. The remaining 15 patients in this group had <50% improvement. Thus, the oral group showed a more significant response as compared to the intralesional group. No major adverse effects were observed in both the groups. At 6-month follow-up, two patients (6.2%) in the oral group had recurrence as compared to three patients (9.4%) in the intralesional group. Limitations: A small sample size was one of the limitations in this study. The dose of tranexamic acid in microinjections and the frequency of injections could have been increased. Conclusion: Tranexamic acid provides rapid and sustained improvement in the treatment of melasma. It is easily available and affordable. Oral route is undoubtedly efficacious, but the results of microinjections, while encouraging, can probably be enhanced by either increasing the frequency of injections or increasing the concentration of the preparation.

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Online since 15th March '04
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