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Clinico-epidemiological features of chronic urticaria in children: A retrospective analysis of 296 children from a tertiary care institute in Northern India


 Department of Dermatology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Davinder Parsad,
Department of Dermatology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_573_17

PMID: 30264742

Background: Urticaria is a common dermatosis affecting approximately 25% of the population. Childhood chronic urticaria is frequently encountered, however, epidemiologic data on pediatric urticaria are limited. Aim: The objective of this study was to study the clinico-epidemiological profile of children with chronic urticaria. Methods: A retrospective study including children less than 14 years with chronic urticaria was conducted from January 2010 to December 2015. Detailed history, clinical examination, investigation results, treatment taken, and follow-up details were recorded on a prefixed proforma. As per the practice of the urticaria clinic, the children were investigated only in case of inadequate therapeutic response or had features of atopy/autoimmune disorders. Results: Two hundred and ninety-six children (166 boys, 130 girls; mean age, 11.3 years) with chronic urticaria were included in the study. Urticaria was spontaneous in onset in 57.1% (169) children; precipitating factors were reported in 42.9% children, most common being physical factors, food allergy, drug intake and infections. Investigations were done in 48 (16.2%) patients; Antinuclear antibody was negative in all patients, raised serum IgE in 20/48 (41.6%), positive autologous serum skin test in 32/48 (66.6%) and raised anti-TPO titre in 10/48 (20.8%) children. A diagnosis of chronic spontaneous urticaria was made in 245 (82.77%) children, chronic dermographic urticaria in 35 (11.82%), cholinergic urticaria and drug-induced urticaria in 5 (1.69%) each, aquagenic urticaria in 4 (1.35%) and cold-induced urticaria in 2 (0.68%) children. Two hundred and fifteen (72.6%) children responded to nonsedating antihistamines alone, 61 (20.6%) required addition of a sedating antihistamine, 7 (0.02%) required addition of montelukast, 3 (0.01%) ranitidine and 10 (20.8%) required a short course of oral corticosteroids to control acute flare. None of the patients required any long-term immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive agent. The mean duration of treatment required was 3 to 12 months. Limitations: The main limitation is the study being retrospective in nature with associated drawbacks of data loss. In addition, we did not use objective scoring system such as urticaria severity score and not all children were extensively investigated. Conclusions: Chronic spontaneous urticaria is the most common type of chronic urticaria in children. Majority of these children can be managed conservatively with long-term antihistamines.


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    -  Kumaran MS
    -  Mahajan R
    -  Goyal N
    -  Parsad D
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Online since 15th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow