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An observational study on glabellar wrinkle patterns in Indians

1 Department of Dermatology, Topiwala National Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra; Cosmetic Dermatology, Kamat Nursing Home, Ponda, Goa, India
2 Cosmetic Dermatology, Kamat Nursing Home, Ponda, Goa; Medicine, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Amala Kamat,
Kamat Nursing Home, Sapana Plaza, Alto Mount, Margao - 403 601, Goa
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_211_17

PMID: 29620040

Background: Botulinum A exotoxin is an established treatment for glabellar frown lines, crow's feet, and horizontal furrows of the forehead. The glabella is probably the most common site for botulinum toxin treatment in Asians. Five glabellar contraction patterns have been classified in earlier studies based on eyebrow approximation, depression, and elevation. Unfortunately, this was found to be confusing by many practitioners. Indians, as all Asians, have smaller muscles compared to the European population, and there is no consensus on the optimal dosage per injection site or concentration of toxin to be used. Aims: (a) Identification and classification of glabellar wrinkle patterns in Indians. (b) Optimization of the minimal effective dose of toxin per site. Materials and Methods: Retrospective photographic analysis of 200 patients who received botulinum toxin for the first time to treat glabellar wrinkles was conducted. The wrinkle patterns were identified and classified by the authors based on the prevalence of perpendicular and transverse glabellar lines, nasal, and forehead wrinkles. Results: Six patterns were identified: (1) 11 (2) U (3) Pi (4) X (5) W (6) I. The relevant muscles were identified and doses optimized for those sites. Limitations: The doses mentioned in this study are not universal for all patients and toxin units would have to be altered and individualized according to the bulk of the facial muscles and individual needs. Conclusion: The investigators classification, injection patterns, and dosage may provide valuable guidance to facial esthetic treatment.

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Online since 15th March '04
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