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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
March-April 2020
Volume 86 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 109-232

Online since Thursday, February 20, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Predatory journals p. 109
Saumya Panda
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_22_20  PMID:31975699
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Prevention of transmission of leprosy: The current scenario p. 115
Aparna Palit, Hemanta Kumar Kar
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_326_19  PMID:31975697
With the worldwide implementation of WHO multidrug therapy in the 1980s, the global burden of leprosy has decreased. However, the annual new case detection rate around the world has remained nearly static over the past decade with India, Brazil, and Indonesia contributing the majority of these new cases. This has been attributed to the ongoing transmission of Mycobacterium leprae from existing untreated cases and partly to the intensive new case detection programs operative in endemic areas. The WHO has called for a “global interruption of transmission of leprosy by 2020”. Targeted chemoprophylaxis of contacts may help bring down the number of new cases. The single-dose rifampicin currently in use for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has limitations and so newer antileprosy drugs and regimens have been trialed for chemoprophylaxis. BCG re-vaccination in combination with chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of leprosy transmission has not been very encouraging. The use of the anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody test to detect subclinical cases and administer targeted chemoprophylaxis was unsuccessful owing to its low sensitivity and technical difficulties in a field setup. There is a pressing need for newer multidrug chemoprophylactic regimens using second-line antileprosy drugs. The Netherlands Leprosy Relief has proposed an enhanced PEP++ regimen. A simple but highly sensitive and specific serological test to detect subclinical cases at the field level needs to be developed. Although there are a number of challenges in the large-scale implementation of strategies to halt leprosy transmission, it is important to overcome these in order to move towards a “leprosy-free world.”
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Experimental study and clinical observations of autologous hair follicle cell transplants to treat stable vitiligo Highly accessed article p. 124
Hai-Xia Shi, Ru-Zhi Zhang, Bin Xu, Chun-Xing Xu, Di Li, Li Wang, Li Xiao
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_261_18  PMID:31397397
Background: Vitiligo is characterized by the loss and/or dysfunction of melanocytes in the skin and has a profound impact on the social interactions of patients. Although there are many treatment options for vitiligo, the outcome is frequently unsatisfactory, especially for patients with stable vitiligo. Objectives: To study the biological properties of melanocytes derived from human hair follicles and to observe the efficacy of using transplants of autologous hair follicle cells to treat patients with stable vitiligo. Methods: From February 2014 to March 2017, 26 patients with stable vitiligo, who were refractory to all current routine therapy, underwent treatment with transplanted autologous hair follicle cells. The skin graft from each patient's occipital region was trimmed to remove excess adipose tissue and some of the upper part of the dermis. The remaining tissue, including hair follicles and dermal papillae, was cut into pieces and incubated in collagenase type IV and then in trypsin-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solutions. The cells were recovered, resuspended in the patient's own serum and then applied to the recipient area. Clinical observations continued for 6 months to 1 year. Laboratory experiments were also performed during this time on scalp specimens obtained from normal human volunteers. Cells migrating from the outer root sheath and the dermal papillae at various times of culture were observed using a microscope. Results: Most of the repigmentation in the vitiligo areas appeared within 8 weeks of transplantation of autologous hair follicle cells. Early skin repigmentation was not uniform and appeared more repigmented than the surrounding normal skin. As time went by, the repigmentation became more obvious and matched the color of the skin around the lesion. Most of the pigmentation presented as a diffuse pattern and was not localized around the hair follicles. Among the 26 patients, 9 (34.6%) achieved excellent repigmentation, while 13 (50.0%) had good, 3 (11.5%) fair and 1 (3.9%) poor repigmentation. During the follow-up visit at 1 year, no excess hair growth was observed in the recipient areas and there was no scarring or ulcer formation in the donor or recipient areas. In the experimental part of the study, many keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts migrated from the adherent outer root sheath. In later subcultures using a specialized medium, pure melanocytes were obtained that had a strong proliferative capacity and had bipolar or poly-dendritic shapes. On the other hand, cells from the dermal papillae grew radially in primary culture and were almost fibroblast-like. However, a few bipolar melanocytes appeared in the later stage of culture. Conclusions: The results of our study show that transplantation of autologous hair follicle cells is a simple and effective method to treat patients with stable vitiligo. Hair follicles (especially the outer root sheath) harbor many melanocytes with potential proliferative ability. Limitations: There are a few limitations of the present study: a small sample size, a short follow-up period, no cell counting or viability testing.
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First-time versus recurrent penoscrotal extramammary Paget's disease: Clinicopathological characteristics and risk factors in 164 Chinese male patients p. 134
Jimeng Hu, Wenjia Ge, Shanhua Mao, Qiang Ding, Mengbo Hu, Haowen Jiang
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_382_18  PMID:31650976
Background: Penoscrotal extramammary Paget's disease is a rare, slow-growing neoplasm with high frequency of local recurrence. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in clinicopathological characteristics between first-time and recurrent penoscrotal Paget's disease, and to discover the potential risk factors of recurrence. Methods: Between January 2007 and February 2014, a total of 164 Chinese patients with biopsy-proven tramammary Paget's diseaseex in penis and scrotum underwent wide local resection in our institution. Among them, 142 patients with first-time disease and other 22 patients with recurrent disease were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. Results: The median duration of symptoms was much shorter in recurrent disease than in first-timers (3 vs. 24 months, P < 0.001). Patients with recurrent disease tended to have lower lesion exudation rates (27.3% vs. 51.8%, P= 0.032). In addition, patients with distant stage were more likely to obtain recurrent disease compared with first-time disease (P = 0.005). Through immunohistochemical detection of extramammary Paget's specimen, we found that HER2/neu protein expression in the recurrent group was significantly higher than first-timers (P = 0.036). Limitations: In this study, the information on familial history of most patients was insufficient. Moreover, due to the lack of follow-up data of our included cases, we were unable to evaluate the prognosis after diagnosis of extramammary Paget's disease. Conclusion: Patients with penoscrotal Paget's disease, especially those with shorter duration of symptoms, exudation of lesions, distant-stage, Paget cells infiltrating into adnexa, and HER2/neu expression, should be followed up more carefully after surgery, as they were more likely to suffer recurrence.
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Trends and patterns of leprosy over a decade in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India: A retrospective analysis p. 141
Sabha Mushtaq, Naina Dogra, Devraj Dogra, Nafis Faizi
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_377_18  PMID:31736465
Background: Leprosy was declared to be eliminated from India in 2006, but recent reports point to an increase in newly detected cases despite the overall fall in prevalence. Aim: This study aimed to analyze the patterns and trends of epidemiological and operational indicators of leprosy at a tertiary care center in northern India over a decade. Methods: This is a 10-year retrospective study from 2005 to 2014 conducted at the urban leprosy centre (ULC) of the Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology, Government Medical College, Jammu (J and K), India. Data were obtained from the preformatted standard leprosy cards of the urban leprosy centre. Details of demographic data, clinical features, smear results and treatment received were collected from individual cards and analyzed to observe various epidemiological trends. Results: A total of 743 cases were analyzed for the period 2005–2014, of which 8.6% were childhood cases, 52.5% patients were immigrants, and 56.4% were farmers and laborers. Lepromatous cases showed a significantly increasing trend when compared with tuberculoid cases (P < 0.05). Smear positivity was seen in 29.6% of cases and showed an increasing trend (P < 0.05). An important observation was the increase in multibacillary cases. World Health Organization (WHO) grade 2 disability also showed an increasing trend over the past decade pointing to delayed diagnosis. Limitation: The study is limited by its retrospective design. Conclusion: The increasing trend of lepromatous and multibacillary cases and cases with grade 2 disability is a poor sign as it indicates delays in diagnosis. Further, smear-positive cases contribute to continued transmission of disease in the community. Leprosy has been declared to be eliminated, but recent reports including the present study suggest a rise in newly detected cases and hence in disease burden.
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Comparison of efficacy of platelet-rich plasma therapy with or without topical 5% minoxidil in male-type baldness: A randomized, double-blind placebo control trial Highly accessed article p. 150
Satyendra Kumar Singh, Vijay Kumar, Tulika Rai
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_589_18  PMID:31823902
Background: Male-type baldness is a common chronic hair loss disorder among males. Male type baldness is characterized by stepwise miniaturization of the hair follicle, due to alteration in the hair cycle dynamics, leading to transformation of the terminal hair follicle into a vellus one. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a new technique which may improve hair regrowth. We planned a randomized, double-blinded placebo control trial to see the efficacy of PRP with and without topical minoxidil and to compare with placebo and standard treatment. Materials and Methods: The study design was a randomized, double-blind placebo control trial. The sample size was calculated, and randomization was done. Patients with male type baldness were allocated into four groups; first group topical minoxidil only, the second group PRP with minoxidil, the third group normal saline (NS), and fourth group PRP only. Interventions were done monthly for 3 months and patients were followed up for the next 2 months. Effects of interventions were assessed by hair density, patient self-assessment, and clinical photography. Results: A total of 80 patients were included. The maximum improvement was found in PRP with minoxidil group. Increase in hair density (in descending order) was PRP with minoxidil group, PRP-alone group, minoxidil-alone group, while a decrease in hair density was found in NS group, after 5 months. The maximum patient satisfaction was found in PRP with minoxidil group followed by (in descending order), PRP-alone group, minoxidil-alone group, and NS group. Limitation: Long-term follow up of patients was not done. Hair counts and hair thickness estimation were not estimated. Conclusion: In our study, we found PRP with topical minoxidil is more effective than PRP alone and topical minoxidil alone.
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CASE REPORT Top

A new presentation of isolated cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease: Eruptive xanthoma-like lesions Highly accessed article p. 158
Mohammed Fawzy El-Kamel, Mohamed Khaled Selim, Mamdouh Morsy Abdel Gawad
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_540_17  PMID:30333358
Rosai-Dorfman disease or sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is a benign lympho-histiocytic proliferative disorder initially described with bilateral painless lymphadenopathy (90 %), fever, leukocytosis, elevated ESR, anemia, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia (90 %). Extranodal forms occur in 43% of cases, the skin being the most common site. Around 10% of patients have skin lesions and in 3%, the disease is limited exclusively to the skin. Here, we report a male patient who presented with pure cutaneous lesions which mimic eruptive xanthoma clinically. However, the diagnosis was established histo pathologically. So, high level of clinical suspension is critical to avoid missing such cases.
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BRIEF REPORTS Top

Ultraviolet-A1 phototherapy in Asian skin: A review of 159 cases in Singapore p. 162
Brian Keng Yong Chia, Gabriel S. Z. Chia, Eugene S. T. Tan, Virlynn W. D. Tan, Wei-Sheng Chong
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_751_17  PMID:30829299
Background: Ultraviolet-A1 phototherapy has been used to treat many inflammatory dermatoses. Aims: To determine the efficacy and safety of ultraviolet-A1 phototherapy in Asian skin. Materials and Methods: We performed a review of records of patients undergoing ultraviolet-A1 phototherapy at our dermatology unit in Singapore from January 2007 to January 2011. Their electronic medical records were reviewed and a standardized questionnaire was filled up for data collection and tabulation. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the difference in response between various groups for each characteristic. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Our study comprised of 159 patients, of which 103 were patients with hand and foot eczema, 21 with atopic dermatitis, 17 with scleroderma and the remaining with miscellaneous dermatoses. Of these patients, 47.6% of patients with hand and feet eczema had good response after 10 sessions, which increased to 75% after 20 sessions and to 84.6% after 30 sessions. After 10 sessions, 47.6% of patients with atopic dermatitis had good response, which increased to 66.7% after 20 sessions. After 30 sessions, all the three remaining patients with atopic dermatitis experienced good response. For patients with scleroderma, only 11.8 and 10% had good response after 10 and 20 sessions, respectively, which increased to 40% after 30 sessions. Limitations: Limitations of our study include its retrospective design and, consequently, the lack of standardized treatment protocol, as well as subjective assessment in terms of clinical improvement. Conclusions: Ultraviolet-A1 phototherapy appears to be efficacious for the treatment of hand and foot eczema as well as atopic dermatitis. However, in patients with scleroderma, the response was partial and needed a longer duration of treatment.
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Lichen Planus Severity Index: A new, valid scoring system to assess the severity of cutaneous lichen planus p. 169
Harsimran Kaur, Balkrishna P Nikam, Varsha P Jamale, Mohan S Kale
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_650_17  PMID:31898636
Introduction: Lichen planus is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder. At present, there is a lack of any specific scoring system to judge the severity of cutaneous lichen planus. Hence, a study was undertaken to establish and validate a system to define the severity of cutaneous lichen planus, i.e. Lichen Planus Severity Index. Materials and Methods: Setting: Skin outpatient department, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad. Model: The formulation model was Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and the validation model was Onychomycosis Severity Index (OSI). Participants: The consensus group included two dermatologists and two dermatology residents with special interest in lichen planus and a statistician. Results of the consensus group were compared with a preliminary reproducibility group of two dermatologists and four dermatology residents. Later, reliability assessment was carried out by two groups: 1. Twenty-one dermatologists scored 20 photographs of four patients of lichen planus after being trained to use Lichen Planus Severity Index. 2. Six doctors (three experts and three randomly selected physicians) evaluated ten real-world patients of lichen planus in skin outpatient department. The physicians were blind to the scores assigned by experts. Steps to Calculate Score: There are five morphological types of lesions seen in lichen planus, namely, erythematous papule, violaceous papule, violaceous plaque, hyperpigmented hypertrophic papule and plaque and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Total involved body surface area is determined and a body surface area factor is assigned. Area involvement factor for each of these morphological lesions is calculated and multiplied with the respective multiplication factor. Sum of all the products gives the lesion severity score. Product of lesion severity score with the body surface area factor gives the final Lichen Planus Severity Score. Results: There was no significant difference between the scores of consensus group and preliminary reproducibility group. Both assessment groups showed high reliability. (Group 1: Cronbach alpha = 0.92, ICC = 0.85; Group 2: Cronbach's alpha = 0.99, ICC = 0.92). The correlation between Lichen Planus Severity Index and the standard Physician Global Assessment score was found to be positive (correlation coefficient = 0.73). Limitations: The system is tedious and requires a steep learning curve. Possible uses of Lichen Planus Severity Index are yet to be explored and validated. Conclusion: Lichen Planus Severity Index is a new reproducible tool to grade the severity of lichen planus.
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IMAGES IN CLINICAL PRACTICE Top

Lepromatous leprosy masquerading as anetoderma in a boy p. 176
T Muhammed Razmi, Tarun Narang, Debajyoti Chatterjee, Sunil Dogra, Uma Nahar Saikia
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_653_17  PMID:30829294
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QUIZ Top

Dome-shaped solitary nodule Highly accessed article p. 178
Wei Zhang, Yun He, Xiaofang Li, Yiqun Jiang, Xuesi Zeng, Weida Liu, Jianfang Sun
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_439_17  PMID:30246702
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR - CASE LETTERS Top

Disseminated cutaneous Mycobacterium haemophilum infection in an immunocompromised Chinese patient presenting with multifocal nodules p. 181
Zhongtao Li, Xiaohui Wang, Yuping Ran, Lin Wang
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_736_17  PMID:31898640
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When the eye does not see, the bone can grieve: An unusual presentation of secondary syphilis p. 184
Mario Vaccaro, Ilenia Marafioti, Giuseppe Nunnari, Giovanni Francesco PellicanÚ, Federico Vaccaro, Costantino John Trombetta, Serafinella Patrizia CannavÚ
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_513_19  PMID:32031111
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Sturge–Weber syndrome coexisting with multiple vertebral vascular malformations and hemivertebra with scoliosis and upper limb and ear hypertrophy p. 187
Angoori Gnaneshwar Rao, V Srikanth Reddy, M Divya Parimala, M Tejal, Kousar Fathima, Sunki Preeti, Jayasree Jhawar, Vidya Dharani, T Shruthi
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_445_19  
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR - STUDY LETTERS Top

Dermoscopic features of various stages of lichen planus p. 191
Meena Makhecha, Tishya Singh, Nitya Malladi, Kinjal Rambhia
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_931_18  PMID:32056976
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High prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in men who have sex with men: A cross-sectional study p. 195
Benu Dhawan, Jyoti Rawre, Neha Dhawan, Riti Bhatia, Vishal Gupta, Neena Khanna
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_494_18  
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR - OBSERVATION LETTERS Top

Linear papular pyogenic granuloma: An unusual presentation p. 197
Chandra Sekhar Sirka, Arpita Nibedita Rout, Kananbala Sahu
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_142_19  PMID:31929230
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Multiple cherry angiomas and pyogenic granuloma in a patient treated with ramucirumab and paclitaxel p. 199
Young Hwan Choi, Hyun Jeong Byun, Jong Hee Lee, Ji-Hye Park
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_184_19  PMID:32031107
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Dermoscopic pitfall: Microcystic adnexal carcinoma mimicking basal cell carcinoma p. 202
Vishal Gupta, Aanchal Kakkar, Snehal Agarwal, Mohamed Sulaiman, M Ramam
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_209_19  PMID:31997790
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Examination of circumscribed palmar hypokeratosis with line-field confocal optical coherence tomography: Dermoscopic, ultrasonographic and histopathologic correlates p. 206
Linda Tognetti, Diletta Fiorani, Mariano Suppa, Elisa Cinotti, Margot Fontaine, Veronique Del Marmol, Pietro Rubegni, Jean Luc Perrot
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_546_19  PMID:32031108
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Crizotinib-induced oral lichenoid lesions p. 209
Vincent Sibaud, Nuno Preto Gomes, Christophe Raspaud, Emmanuelle Vigarios
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_353_19  PMID:31997791
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR - THERAPY LETTER Top

Dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane treatment of venous leg ulcers p. 212
Sergio Mazzei, Alessandro Sindoni, Fausto Fama, Nimfa Jeraldine Buizon, Mohab Ahmed Shafei
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_175_19  PMID:31997789
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QUIZ Top

Slowly growing nodule in supralabial region p. 215
Carlos Gonzalez-Cruz, Domingo Bodet, Vicente Garcia-Patos
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_13_18  PMID:30226477
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PEARLS Top

Thermocol-based spacer for interventional dermoscopy p. 218
Feroze Kaliyadan, Jayasree Puravoor
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_382_19  PMID:31997788
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IMAGES IN CLINICAL PRACTICE Top

Congenital midline cervical cleft p. 220
Prashant Bharti, M Ramam, Neetu Bhari
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_466_18  PMID:30729923
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RESIDENTSí PAGE Top

Multiplicity in clinical trial: An ignored concept p. 222
Sayanta Thakur, Sandeep Lahiry
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_12_19  PMID:31997792
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BOOK REVIEW Top

Nail disorders: A comprehensive approach p. 226
Colonel Manas Chatterjee, Major Surbhi Rajput
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_773_19  PMID:31975698
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OBITUARY Top

Prof. Virendra Nath Sehgal (August 09, 1936–January 17, 2020) p. 228
Rajesh Malhotra, Ashna Malhotra
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_94_20  PMID:32056975
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NET CASE Top

Lymphangiomas: Rare presentations in oral cavity and scrotum in pediatric age group p. 230
Ankush Arunrao Kurude, Meghana Madhukar Phiske, Ketan Kallapa Kolekar, Chitra Shivanand Nayak
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_139_18  PMID:32031109
The incidence of lymphangioma is 1.2 to 2.8/1000 newborns. They present at birth/before 2 years, with predilection for the head and neck (50%–70%). The buccal mucosa is the second most common site reported (14 cases reported) after the anterior two-thirds of tongue. The scrotum is a rare site with less than 50 cases reported (till 2002). Involvement of vital structures, aesthetic, and functional requirements may necessitate treatments such as surgical excision, radiation, cryotherapy, electrocautery, sclerotherapy, embolization, ligation, and laser. Two rare cases – the first being primary, late-onset buccal lymphangioma, with vesicular presentation, and the second being genital lymphangioma involving the right side of scrotum, thigh, and groin with extension to the left groin – are highlighted.
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NET LETTERS Top

Verrucous carcinoma of the upper lip: An exuberant presentation in a patient with other synchronous lesions p. 230
Ana Marta Antonio, Hugo Barreiros, João Goulão, Nuno Barbosa, Elvira Bártolo
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_529_17  PMID:31274469
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Primary cutaneous amyloidosis of auricular concha p. 230
Xin Zhou, Quan Chen, Xin Tian
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_239_18  PMID:31417070
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Acitretin-induced differentiation syndrome in a case of generalized pustular psoriasis p. 231
Priyanka Gowda, Veeranna Shastry, P. S. S. Ranugha, Vinutha Rangappa
DOI:10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_318_18  PMID:31089005
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IJDVL AWARDS 2019 Top

IJDVL International Awards 2019 p. 232

DOI:10.4103/0378-6323.278333  PMID:32056977
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Online since 15th March '04
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