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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 86  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 499--507

Assessment of liver and renal functions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons on highly active antiretroviral therapy: A mixed cohort study


Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Dr. R. P. Government Medical College, Kangra (Tanda), Himachal Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vikram K Mahajan
Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Dr. R. P. Govt. Medical College, Kangra (Tanda) - 176 001, Himachal Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_169_18

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Background: Indian data on potential hepatorenal toxic effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV/AIDS-affected persons is lacking. Objectives: To assess hepatorenal abnormalities in HIV-infected persons on HAART in a hospital-based mixed cohort study using concurrent and nonconcurrent data analysis. Methods: Hepatorenal function tests, urinalysis and ultrasonogaphy for liver/kidneys (when applicable) were assessed in 400 (men 185; women 215) persons aged 2–84 (mean 47.8) years on HAART. Acute liver toxicity, acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease were defined depending upon abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase, urea and creatinine levels/clearance as per standard guidelines. Results: The duration of HAART was 1 month to 9 years (mean 3.7 years) with 284 (71%) individuals being on treatment for ≤5years. The major HAART regimens included zidovudine + lamivudine + nevirapine in 175 (43.8%), tenofovir + lamivudine + efavirenz in 174 (43.5%) and zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz in 20 (5%) individuals and were associated with grade-1 hepatic dysfunction in 57 (14.3%) individuals, with men aged between 31 and 45 years on antiretroviral therapy for >5 years being mainly affected. Forty two (17.1%) of 246 individuals with anemia and 15 (9.7%) of 154 individuals without anemia showed hepatic dysfunction. None had acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease or abnormal urinalysis or ultrasonography. In contrast, the pretreatment elevated serum alanine amiotranerase in 99 (22.3%) and blood urea and/or creatinine levels in 16 (4%) individuals decreased significantly post highly active antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions: The study reflects the low frequency of regimen based highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated hepatic or nephrotoxicity despite prolonged use, especially in the absence of other risk factors. Preexisting anemia appears an important risk factor for highly active antiretroviral therapy-induced hepatotoxicity (OR 1.90, Cl 95% CI 1.02–3.57, P = 0.04). Highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated nephrotoxicity was not a significant problem. Study of viral load or other risk factors and potential of each drug for hepatorenal toxicity/dysfunction in HIV affected were not part of the study. A small number of subjects and retrospective analysis of biochemical parameters were other important limitations.






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