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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 82  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 510--518

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular changes in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and their correlation with disease severity: A hospital-based cross-sectional study


1 Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Institute for Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
5 Department of Cardiac Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
6 Department of Bio-statistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Neena Khanna
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0378-6323.183638

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Background: Previous epidemiological studies suggest an association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis. However, there is a paucity of data in the Indian population on these associations. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis compared to healthy controls and to correlate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome with severity of psoriasis. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed on 140 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 140 controls. Psoriasis was categorized as mild, moderate and severe based on psoriasis area and severity index (<10, 10–14 and ≥15, respectively) and as disease of short (<1 year), intermediate (1–3 years) and long duration (>3 years). In all patients and controls, body mass index was calculated, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and fasting bloaod sugar and lipid profile were estimated. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by the presence of 3 or more of the modified National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. A subset of 30 psoriatic patients and 30 healthy controls were selected by the systematic sampling method for cardiac evaluation including electrocardiography, echocardiography and carotid intima-media thickness measurement. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly more in psoriatic patients than in controls (39.3% vs. 17.1%, odds ratio = 3.13). Psoriatic patients also had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity and diabetes. There was a significant trend to increase in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension and type 2 diabetes with increased severity and longer duration of the psoriasis. Patients with psoriasis had significantly higher carotid intima-media thickness (mean 0.61 mm ± 0.01 mm vs. 0.37 mm ± 0.01 mm) than controls. Limitation: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study with a relatively small sample size. A prospective study with a larger sample would have validated the results further. Conclusion: There is a significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in psoriasis patients as compared to controls; the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components increases with severity and duration of psoriasis. There is a higher prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with psoriasis thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. We suggest that patients with moderate to severe psoriasis be screened routinely for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease and encouraged to correct modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.






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