IADVL
Indexed with PubMed and Science Citation Index (E) 
 
Users online: 3236 
     Home | Feedback | Login 
About Current Issue Archive Ahead of print Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe What's New Contact  
  NAVIGATE Here 
    Next article
    Previous article
    Table of Contents

 RESOURCE Links
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed83425    
    Printed1067    
    Emailed13    
    PDF Downloaded1459    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

 

 REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 82  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 262--272

Glutathione as a skin whitening agent: Facts, myths, evidence and controversies


1 Skinnocence: The Skin Clinic, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
2 Department of Dermatology and STD, UCMS and GTB Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Dermatology and STD, MAMC and LN Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sidharth Sonthalia
Skinnocence: The Skin Clinic, C-2246, Sushant Lok-1, Block-C, Gurgaon - 122 009, Haryana
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0378-6323.179088

Rights and Permissions

Glutathione is a low molecular weight thiol-tripeptide that plays a prominent role in maintaining intracellular redox balance. In addition to its remarkable antioxidant properties, the discovery of its antimelanogenic properties has led to its promotion as a skin-lightening agent. It is widely used for this indication in some ethnic populations. However, there is a dichotomy between evidence to support its efficacy and safety. The hype around its depigmentary properties may be a marketing gimmick of pharma-cosmeceutical companies. This review focuses on the various aspects of glutathione: its metabolism, mechanism of action and the scientific evidence to evaluate its efficacy as a systemic skin-lightening agent. Glutathione is present intracellularly in its reduced form and plays an important role in various physiological functions. Its skin-lightening effects result from direct as well as indirect inhibition of the tyrosinase enzyme and switching from eumelanin to phaeomelanin production. It is available in oral, parenteral and topical forms. Although the use of intravenous glutathione injections is popular, there is no evidence to prove its efficacy. In fact, the adverse effects caused by intravenous glutathione have led the Food and Drug Administration of Philippines to issue a public warning condemning its use for off-label indications such as skin lightening. Currently, there are three randomized controlled trials that support the skin-lightening effect and good safety profile of topical and oral glutathione. However, key questions such as the duration of treatment, longevity of skin-lightening effect and maintenance protocols remain unanswered. More randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size, long-term follow-up and well-defined efficacy outcomes are warranted to establish the relevance of this molecule in disorders of hyperpigmentation and skin lightening.






[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*


        
Print this article     Email this article

Online since 15th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow