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 REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 75  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 10--19

Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing


Department of Dermatology and STD, Pt. J. N. M. Medical College, Raipur - 492 001, India

Correspondence Address:
P K Nigam
Department of Dermatology and STD, Pt. J. N. M. Medical College, Raipur - 492 001, C.G
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0378-6323.45214

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Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.






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Online since 15th March '04
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