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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2007  |  Volume : 73  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 389--392

Onychomycosis: Clinico-mycologic study of 130 patients from Himachal Pradesh, India


1 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India

Correspondence Address:
Nand Lal Sharma
Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla - 171 001, Himachal Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0378-6323.37055

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Background: Onychomycosis is a common nail infection caused by dermatophytes, yeast or other nondermatophyte molds and has diverse clinical presentations. Although common in this part of the country, no significant clinico-mycologic data is available. Objectives: This study was carried out to document the clinico-mycologic pattern of onychomycosis in Himachal Pradesh (India). Methods: All consecutive patients of onychomycosis diagnosed clinically during March 2005 to February 2006 were studied for clinical forms, number of nails involved and severity of infection. The clippings from the most severely affected nails were subjected to potassium hydroxide (KOH) mounts for direct microscopy and fungal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar. Results: These 130 patients (M:F 98:32) were between 8-76 years of age (mean 41.35 14.98 years). The prevalence of onychomycosis was higher among farmers and office workers (20% each). Finger or toe nails were exclusively involved in 56.9 and 32.3% patients respectively while these were involved concurrently in the rest of the 10.8% patients. Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis seen in 73.1% of the specimens was the most common clinical type. KOH- and culture-positivity were recorded in 59.2 and 37.6% cases respectively. Dermatophytes and yeast (Candida albicans) were isolated in 40.8% each of the cultured nail specimens while nondermatophytic molds (NDM) were cultured in 18.6% of the samples. Various dermatophytes cultured were Trichophyton rubrum (32.6%), T. mentagrophytes (6.1%) and T. verrucosum (2.1%) respectively. Aspergillus spp. (6.1%) was the most commonly isolated NDM while other detected molds were Acremonium spp., Fusarium spp,, Scopulariopsis spp., Curvularia spp. and Penicillium marneffei. Peripheral vascular disorders (7.69%), occupational trauma (13.8%), close association with animals (60.78%) and a family history of onychomycosis (26.15%) were a few of the predisposing factors identified. Conclusion: Onychomycosis is not uncommon in this part of the country and has similar clinico-mycologic profiles in the different cases detected.






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Online since 15th March '04
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