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    Abstract
    Introduction
    Materials and Me...
    Results
    Discussion
    References

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2003  |  Volume : 69  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23-24

HIV seropositivity among patients with sexually transmitted diseases


Department of Microbiology, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar

Correspondence Address:
36, Anand Avenue, Maqbool Road, Amritsar - 143 001

   Abstract 

2013 patients with various sexually transmitted diseases were screened for HIV antibodies in voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC) attached to Microbiology Lab of Govt. Medical College, Amritsar from Jan. 1998 to Dec. 2001. Sixty-one (3.03%) were found to be positive for HIV. 44 were males and 17 were females. There was a constant rise in the percentage positivity in females from 14.3% in 1998 to 38.09% in 2002. There was also rise in the prevalence of HIV among the STD attenders (1.65% in 1998 to 5.13% in 2001).

How to cite this article:
Aggarwal A, Arora U. HIV seropositivity among patients with sexually transmitted diseases. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2003;69:23-4


How to cite this URL:
Aggarwal A, Arora U. HIV seropositivity among patients with sexually transmitted diseases. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol [serial online] 2003 [cited 2019 Sep 18];69:23-4. Available from: http://www.ijdvl.com/text.asp?2003/69/1/23/5814



   Introduction Top

Persons with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) form the high risk group for the transmission of HIV India has a high incidence of STDs i.e. 5% (40 million) of new cases a year.[1] There is a strong association between the occurrence of HIV infections and the presence of other STDs.[2]
Severity of manifestations and infectivity of STDs in HIV infected patients is more because of some degree of immunodeficiency. HIV positive individual having other STDs are more liekly to transmit HIV to others by shedding or releasing HIV cells in both ulcerative and inflammatory genital secretions.' Ulcerative as well as some non-ulcerative STDs (such as gonorrhoea and chlamydial infections) facilitate the transmission of HIV. A significant increase in the prevalence of HIV among male patients suffering from various STDs has been observed.[4]
The susceptibility of non-infected partners to HIV also increases with these STDs.s This study was undertaken to ascertain the HIV infectivity of patients presenting with STDs in Punjab and also highlights the trends of HIV infection over the past few years.

   Materials and Methods Top

A total of 2013 patients suffering from various STDs were tested from January 1998 to December 2001 in VCTC of Department of Microbiology, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar. Their risk behaviour, sexual partners, past and current STD, socio-economic and demographic details were recorded. The samples were collected and preserved with all the standard precautions and tested by ELISA with commercial test kits (supplied by NACO). Reactive samples were confirmed with two other ERS (test) of different principle and/or antigen.

   Results Top

Out of 2013 patients, screened, sixty-one (3.03%) were found to be positive for HIV. The annual HIV antibody prevalence rate is shown in [Table - 1]. Among the positive patients 44 were males and 17 were females [Table - 2]. The maximum number of patients (22) were between the age group of 30-39 years [Table - 2].

   Discussion Top

Out of 2013 patients screened sixty-one (3.03%) were found to be HIV positive. The incidence is almost the same as reported in a study from Tanzania[6] (3.8%).
The annual HIV antibody prevalence rate [Table - 1] is also consistent with the study of other workers who have noted a rise in the prevalence of HIV among the STD attenders.[7]
A significant finding in the present study was a consistent rise in the percentage positivity in females from 14.3% in 1998 to 38.09% in 2001 which is also reported in a study from Aurangabad.[8] 27.9% (17) of the positive persons were below the age of 25 years whereas in other study[9] this incidence was 78%, which might be because of the socio-demographic vulnerability of the people of that area.
Thus screening for HIV antibody prevalence in STD clinic offenders is likely to help in understanding the reality of spread of HIV infections. Many other parts of the developing world, including Southern Asia where the HIV epidemic is now spreading rapidly, have high rates of STDs. As both HIV and STDs are closely interlinked early diagnosis, treatment and control of STD offers a rational approach to the control of HIV.
The present study highlights the need for modest interventions - educational interventior aimed at modifying risk behaviour at school leve along with moral and health education to preven HIV infection in younger age group. 

   References Top

1.National AIDS Control Programme - India Country Scenario or update 1996, page 30. NACO, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Govt. of India.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Controlling Sexually Transmitted Disease: Population Report, 1993 p. 6.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Specialists Training and Reference Module: NACO: Ministry a Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, 2000.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Jain MK, John TJ, Kersh GI A review of human immunodeficieno virus infection in India. J Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 1994; 7: 1185-1194.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Cameron DW, D'Costa U, Maitha GM, et al. Female and male fo seroconversion in men. Lancet 1989; 2: 403.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Grosskurth H, et al. Impact of improved treatment of sexuall' transmitted diseases in HIV infection in rural Tanzania: Rondomizec control trial. Lancet 1995; 346: 530-536.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.World Health Organization. Global programme on AIDS. The HIV, AIDS pandemic, 1993 overview Geneva, WHO 1994.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Balal K, Kulkarni JD, Damb AS, et al. HIV seropositivity in STD patients. IJMM 2000, 18: 45.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Mathai R, Prasad PVS, Jacob M, et al. HIV seropositivity amonc, patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Vellore. Indian J Med Re (A) 1990;91: 239-241.  Back to cited text no. 9    

 

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