IADVL
Indexed with PubMed and Science Citation Index (E) 
 
Users online: 2039 
     Home | Feedback | Login 
About Current Issue Archive Ahead of print Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe What's New Contact  
  Navigate here 
  Search
 
   Next article
   Previous article 
   Table of Contents
  
 Resource links
   Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
   [PDF Not available] *
   Citation Manager
   Access Statistics
   Reader Comments
   Email Alert *
   Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
   Abstract
   Introduction
   Material and Methods
   Results
   Discussion
   References
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed6434    
    Printed63    
    Emailed4    
    PDF Downloaded0    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

 


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2000  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 241-243

Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents




Correspondence Address:
B M Agrawal


Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 20877088

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

  Abstract 

The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7%) out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3%) out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3%) out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5%) were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23%) were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae); Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi) 18 cases (14.3%) and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) 11 cases (8.7%). Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium) was observed in 8 cases (6.3%) which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.


Keywords: Sexually Transmitted Diease, Trichomonas vaginalis


How to cite this article:
Agrawal B M, Agrawal S, Singh P K, Rizvi G. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2000;66:241-3

How to cite this URL:
Agrawal B M, Agrawal S, Singh P K, Rizvi G. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol [serial online] 2000 [cited 2020 Jun 5];66:241-3. Available from: http://www.ijdvl.com/text.asp?2000/66/5/241/4933



  Introduction Top


The present time has witnessed the chang­ing scenario of the etiological agents of the sexually transmitted diseases and has completely altered the past pattern of microbial agents. [1] Trichomonas vaginalis, one of the most significant etiological agents from India as well as from other countries, had been pointed out as an indicator for other etiological agents. [2]

It has been recognised to have an associa­tion with other organisms like N. gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida Sps., Pediculosis pubis, genital wart, Treponema pallidium and H.

Ducreyi
. [2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7]


  Material and Methods Top


The study was based on 350 female cases of STD attending the outpatient department of Skin and STD and the department of Obstetrics and gynaecology, and the Department of Microbiology, S.N. Medical College, one of the medical institutions of western Uttar Pradesh. All the subjects were in the age group of 20-30 years with history of excessive vaginal discharge. T. vaginalis , C. trachomatis , Candida Sps., N. gonorrohoeae , Pediculosis pubis, Genital wart, Treponema pallidium and H. Ducreyi were identified and confirmed. Serodiagnosis was done for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidium . Male counterparts were evaluated as and when available. Only 68 female patients with positive T vaginalis finding, with their male partners could be followed up for T. vaginalis investigation. Final identification was done according to the criteria of NACO, [8] Fineglod [9] and WHO Manual SOPM for GC. [10]


  Results Top


[Table - 1] shows that two-thirds of our study cases had Trichomonas vaginalis . The Candida Sps were found in almost half of the cases. One-fifth of the cases were positive for N. gonorrhoeae. Other organisms were seen in less than 10% of cases.

[Table - 2] indicates that out of the total 350 cases, 216 cases were positive for T. vaginalis . Further, 126 cases out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis were having association with Candida Sps in 32.5% cases, N. gonorrhoeae in 23.0% and H. Ducreyi in 14.3% cases, in comparison to association with T. pallidium (8 cases; 6.3%). This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). This is because of rigid criteria for selection of STD cases.

Out of 216 cases, only 68 T. vaginalis positive female patients were followed up. On investigation of their male counterparts, positivity for T. vaginalis was observed in 56 (82.3%) cases.


  Discussion Top


The microbial flora pattern of the STD was supposed to be headed by T. pallidium followed by %. N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis but the present time has witnessed the inclusion of a large number of etiological agents which has completely changed the scenario of microbial flora pattern.

The present study has isolated. T. vaginalis in 61.7% of STD cases which had been reported as 28.4% and 29.1% previously. This may be because of increasing awareness in the community.

This organism was also seen to be significantly associated with Candida Sps (32.5%) which requires a strong acidic pH. The poor local hygienic condition, colonization of the Candida and anemia helps in colonization and multiplication of T. vaginalis.

An association of 126 of T. vaginalis existed with 23.0% cases of N. gonorrhoeae and 14.3% cases of H. Ducreyi. Our reported observations are higher than that reported earlier as 30% [2] subT. vaginalis with at least one other sexually transmitted infection which may be due to geographical distribution and awareness for STDs in our region.

In our limited follow up study of 68 cases out of 216 cases, the male partner could be studied and T. vaginalis was seen in 56 cases (82.3%) which shows that complete eradication is possible only in cases where the counterpart is effectively treated with appropriate medication.

Thus our hypothesis suggests that1.vacjmaX\s is an indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents.



 
  References Top

1.Agrawal Sandhya, Agrawal BM, Ansari KH et al. Chlamydia trachomatis and Candida Sps in STD. Ind J Obstet Gynaec 1996; 46: 672-676.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Reynolds M. Wilson J. Is Trichomonas vaginalis still a marker for other STD in women. Int J STD. AIDS 1996; 7:131-132.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Jaiswal AK, Bhutan B. Pattern of Sexually transmitted diseases in North- Eastern India. Indian J Sex Transmm Dis, 199; 15:19-20.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Khan SM, Rao S, Smith N. Screening of the prostitutes of Mehandi red light area of Hyderabad. Indian J Med Microbiol 1991; 9: 68-71.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Ghosh SK, Ganguly U, Banerjee S, et al. A clinicoetiological study of sexually transmitted diseases with special reference to genital discharge. Indian J Dermatol Venereol 1994; 39:65-68.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Agrawal Sandhya, Agrawal BM, Rizvi G, Ansari KH, Singh S. STD - A changing scenario of microbial flora. Ind J Obstet & Gynaec 1997; (In Press).  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Agrawal Sandhya, Agrawal BM, Rizvi G and Ansari KH: Changing scenario of Microbial Flora in pregnancy " Present and Past". Ind J Obstet & Gynaec, UP Chapter, 1997; 3: 37-44.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Reference Manual for Laboratory Workers: Diagnosis of sexually trasmitted diseases. National AIDS Control Organisation, New Delhi, 1994: 3-47.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Finegold SM, William JM, Bailey Scotts: Diagnostic Microbiology, The CV Mosby Co., St. Louis, Toronto, London, 6th Edition, 1988: 51-56.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.SOPM- GASP and ARM: Standard Operating Procedure Manual: Gonococci Antimicrobial Susceptibility Programme and Antimicro­bial Resistance Monitoring, WHO/NB, NAMS, 1997; 12-23.  Back to cited text no. 10    


Tables

[Table - 1], [Table - 2]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article

    

Online since 15th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow