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STUDIES
Year : 1995  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 270-272

A study of immunoglobulins and complements (C3 & C4) in alopecia areata




Correspondence Address:
R P Sharma


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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 20952986

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  Abstract 

Estimation of serum Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA) and complements (C3 and C4) was carried out in 100 cases of alopecia areata as per method described by Mancini (1965).[1] Clinically patients were divided in two groups, alopecia areata circumscribed (group I) and severe alopecia areata (group II). Significant decrease in levels of one or more Immunoglobulins were observed in most of the patients. However, Serum complements (C3 and C4) were within range of normal control values


Keywords: Alopecia areata, Immunoglobulins, Complements


How to cite this article:
Sharma R P, Sharma D K, Sharma N K, Agrawal A K, Sharm. A study of immunoglobulins and complements (C3 & C4) in alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1995;61:270-2

How to cite this URL:
Sharma R P, Sharma D K, Sharma N K, Agrawal A K, Sharm. A study of immunoglobulins and complements (C3 & C4) in alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol [serial online] 1995 [cited 2019 Mar 26];61:270-2. Available from: http://www.ijdvl.com/text.asp?1995/61/5/270/4237



  Introduction Top


The aetiology of alopecia areata remains obscure. Presently it is thought to be a disease of auto-immune aetiology. After going through some of such reports present work was carried out to study the levels of Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA) and complements (C3 and C4) in patients of alopecia areata.


  Materials and Methods Top


The study comprised of 100 cases of alopecia areata and 30 healthy controls of corresponding age and sex. On the basis of clinical observations patients were divided in two groups.

Group I: Alopecia areata circumscribed. Those having only few patches over scalp, face or body.

Group II: Severe alopecia areata.Those having multiple patches involving scalp, face and body for more than six months or multiple patches with ophiasis or cases of alopecia totalis and universalis.

Estimation of serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA) and serum complements (C3 and C4) were done by single radial immunodiffusion technique as described by Mancini et al[1] by using tripartigen plates (Boehring India Ltd).


  Results Top


Clinical observations revealed alopecia areata circumscribed (group I) in 75% and severe alopecia areata (group II) in 25% patients. The mean age of onset was 24 years with male: female ratio of 1.6:1. The duration of disease ranged from 1 week to 25 years.

On estimation of serum immunoglobulins in 100 patients, significant decrease in levels of IgG, IgM and IgA were observed in 64%, 46% and 42% patients respectively as compared to control levels. Out of 64% patients with decrease in levels of IgG, 19/25 were from severe alopecia areata group II and 45/75 were from alopecia areata circumscribed group I. Similarly out of 46% with decrease in levels of IgM, 16/25 were from group II and 30/. 75 were from group I. Among 42% patients with decrease in levels of IgA, 14/25 were from group II and 28/75 were from group I.

The levels of serum complements (C3 and C4) in all the 100 patients were within the normal range of control values.

Details of observations are shown in [Table - 1] to [Table - 3].


  Discussion Top


Present study revealed either one or more type of immunoglobulins were decreased in most of the patients. The decrease was more significant in severe alopecia areata group ll. Almost similar observations are reported by Herzer et al[2] and Singla et al.[3] In contrast Kern et al,[4] Betterle et al[5] and Young et al[6] reported no changes in immunoglobulin levels in their patients.

Serum complements (C3 and C4) levels were found within normal range of control values. Similar observations are reported by Herzer et al[2] and Wolf et al.[7]

It is concluded from the present study that significant decrease in one or more immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM and IgA) in most of the patients indicated that humoral immunity was impaired. In patients under study, report about impairment of cellular immunity is already published.[8] On the basis of these two reports we finally concluded that both cellular and humoral immunity were impaired in patients of alopecia areata.

 
  References Top

1.Mancinl G, Carbonara AC, Herenona JP.immunocytochemical quantitation of antigens by single radial immunodiffusions immunochemistry 1965;2:235.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Herzer P, Czarnetzki BM. Helzman H. Immunological studies in patients with alopecia areata. Int Arch Allergy and App Immunol 1979;58:212-8.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Singla A. Mittal RR, Walia RLS, Bansal IJS. selective immunological evaluation in alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1991;57:216-7.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Kern F, Hoffmann WH, Hambriock GW. Alopecia arsata. immunological studies and treatment with prednisone. Arch Dermatol 1973;107:407-12.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Betterle C, Peserico A, Delepreie G Autoantibodies in alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 1975;111:927.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Young E, Bruhs HM, Berrens L. Alopecia areata and atopy. Dermatologica 1978;156:306-8.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Wolf R, Livini E, Feueman EJ. Immunologic studies in patients with alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 1981;117:455.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Sharma R P, Sharma D K, Sharma N K et al. A study of peripheral T-lymphocytes in alopecia areata. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1995;61:32-3.  Back to cited text no. 8    


    Tables

[Table - 1], [Table - 2], [Table - 3]



 

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