|Year : 1990 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 112-114
Charysanthemum contact dermatitis: Clinical patterns and patch testing with ethanolic extracts
RC Tanwar, SC Sharma, S Kaur
R C Tanwar
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Forty patients with suspected chrysanthemum contact dermatitis and 20 age and sex matched controls were patch tested with ethanolic extracts of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Eighteen (45%) patients demonstrated positive patch tests. Out of these 10 (56%) patients gave a history of photoaggravation and 9 (50%) of seasonal variation. Dermatitis involving hands and face only, widespread dermatitis and airborne contact dermatitis were the common clinical patterns seen. Patients with occupational exposure to chrysanthemums demonstrated the maximum positive reactions. All the 18 patients showed positive patch tests with the extracts of flowers, 17 with leaves, 16 with whole plant and only 4 with the stem.
Keywords: Contact dermatitis, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Ethanolic extracts, Patch tests
|How to cite this article:|
Tanwar R C, Sharma S C, Kaur S. Charysanthemum contact dermatitis: Clinical patterns and patch testing with ethanolic extracts. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1990;56:112-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Tanwar R C, Sharma S C, Kaur S. Charysanthemum contact dermatitis: Clinical patterns and patch testing with ethanolic extracts. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol [serial online] 1990 [cited 2020 Jun 2];56:112-4. Available from: http://www.ijdvl.com/text.asp?1990/56/2/112/3495
Chrysanthemum, a genus of Compositae family of plants is grown as a decorative flowering plant throughout the world. McCord et al in 1921 described contact dermatitis to chrysanthemums for the first time and since then it has been reported mainly from Europe. Canada and USA.,, Though chrysanthemums are prevalent in all parts of India, there are only two published reports of chrysanthemum contact dermatitis from India, a mention of 2 cases out of 37 in a survey of contact dermatitis showing positive reactions to fresh leaf and aqueous extract of leaves of Chrysanthemum indicwn and a report of Chrysanthemum morifolium as one of the causes of airborne contact dermatitis due to Compositae plants. We report results of our investigations on chrysanthemum contact dermatitis in this region.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Forty patients, suspected of chrysanthemum contact dermatitis were taken up for this study after an informed consent. Twenty age and sex matched subjects exposed to chrysanthemums but having no evidence of contact dermatitis were included as controls.
Sixty mature chrysanthemum of florists (Chrysanthemum morifolium) of 4 different varieties as Pompon (large size), Regular anemone, Button and Korean single (15 plants each) grown at the Institute's nursery between October and November. 1986 were collected for preparation of plant extract. All the 60 plants were shredded into small pieces and air-dried. Thirty plants were kept as flowers, leaves and stems separately and 30 as whole plants. Ethanolic plant extracts were prepared by a method comparable to the one recommended by Hollister Stier USA and described in detail previously.
Patch tests were done with 1 : 5 (20%) and 1 : 10 (10%) dilutions of t'he ethanolic extracts of the whole plant, the flowers, the leaves and the stems of C. morifolium and also with 1 : 200 (0.5;0) dilution of the ethanolic extracts of the flowers and th;; leaves of Parthenium hysterophoruv, another compositae plant widely prevalent in this region. Patches were put on the upper back using indiginous Finn chambers 10 and removed at 48 hours. Readings were done at 48 and 72 hours and graded from 1-h to 3+ as recommended by the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group.
| Results|| |
Mean age of the patients was 44.2 years (range 22-73 years) and that of the controls was 35.5 years (range 19-58 years). Majority of the patients (23) and the controls (14) were in the age group of 21-40 years. Thirty two patients were exposed to chrysanthemums as a hobby of gardening, 6 during their occupation as gardeners and 2 patients were aware of chrysanthemums in their office but gave no history of direct handling.
A total of 26 (65%) patients gave positive patch tests with chrysanthemum extracts, 18 (45%) of them showed positive reactions with chrysanthemum extracts only and 8 (20%) of them with extracts of both chrysanthemums as well as P. hysterophorus. The patch test positivity was highest (67%) in those with occupational exposure and in none of the 2 patients with indirect exposure. Ten (56%) patients had noticed photoaggravation and 9 (50%) patients seasonal variation during the months of October and November, the blooming season of chrysanthemums. The clinical patterns seen were: airborne contact dermatitis, widespread dermatitis, only hands and face dermatitis and photodermatitis pattern [Table - 1].
Positive patch tests were seen with the extract of flowers in all the 18 patients, with leaves in 17 and with whole plant in 16. Stems were found to be the least allergenic with only 4 patients showing positive patch tests.
| Comments|| |
Chrysanthemum contact dermatitis has been reported to affect both men and women and mainly the middle-aged persons,,, as also seen in the present study.
Chrysanthemum dermatitis is more common during their blooming season as was observed in our study, though in Europe it seems to be present throughout the year, perhaps due to their availability round the year. Association between contact hypersensitivity to chrysanthemums and photosensitivity has previously been recorded ,, 56% of the patients in the present study also gave a history of photoaggravation though no phototesting or photopatch tests were done in the present study.
The allergenic components of chrysanthemums, the oleoresins occur on the surface of flowers, leaves and the stems.,, In the previous study by Bleumink et al comparing extracts from different parts of the chrysanthemums, the alcoholic extracts of the flowers and leaves were found to show maximum reactivity, while extract of the stems did not show any reaction. The results of the present study with ethanolic extracts have confirmed these findings. Thus, Chrysanthemum morifolium seems to be another important compositae plant besides Parthenium hysterophorus as a cause of contact dermatitis due to compositae plants.
| References|| |
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[Table - 1]